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Features of the software ASOM for linkage, kinematics and mechanism design

No matter the complexity of the linkages you want to create, ASOM offers you the necessary building blocks. However, you can also use our more targeted multi-bar syntheses to quickly find your optimal results.

By using the kinematic elements you can already create multi-bar systems of infinite complexity and variety. Additionally, though, ASOM v7 also offers you syntheses for some of the most popular multi-bar linkage types.

Syntheses aid you in the design of multi-bar linkages based on a description of the desired movement. This description can be given in the form of desired points or planes (point plus orientation) for start and end of the movement (and sometimes in between).

One-Bar

Two-Position-Synthesis of One-Bar-Mechanism

2 Points

With this synthesis you can construct a one-bar mechanism that moves one given point onto another.

Three-Position-Synthesis of One-Bar-Mechanism

3 Points

With this synthesis you can construct a one-bar mechanism that moves one given point first onto a second and then onto a third.

Two-Planes-Synthesis of One-Bar-Mechanism

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a one-bar mechanism that moves one given plane onto another.

Four-Bar

Two-Position-Synthesis of Four-Bar-Mechanism

2 Points

With this synthesis you can construct a four-bar mechanism that moves one given point onto another.

Two-Planes-Synthesis of Four-Bar-Mechanism

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a four-bar mechanism that moves one given plane onto another.

Three-Planes-Synthesis of Four-Bar-Mechanism

3 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a four-bar mechanism that moves one given plane first onto a second and then onto a third.

Six-Bar

Six-Bar, Stephenson (I), 2 Planes

Stephenson (I)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Stephenson (I) that moves one given plane onto another.

Six-Bar, Stephenson (IIa), 2 Planes

Stephenson (IIa)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Stephenson (IIa) that moves one given plane onto another.

Six-Bar, Stephenson (IIb), 2 Planes

Stephenson (IIb)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Stephenson (IIb) that moves one given plane onto another.

Six-Bar, Stephenson (III), 2 Planes

Stephenson (III)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Stephenson (III) that moves one given plane onto another.

Six-Bar, Watt (Ia), 2 Planes

Watt (Ia)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Watt (Ia) that moves one given plane onto another.

Six-Bar, Watt (Ib), 2 Planes

Watt (Ib)

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a six-bar mechanism of the configuration Watt (Ib) that moves one given plane onto another.

Crank Slider

Crank Slider, 2 Planes

2 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a crank-slider mechanism that moves one given plane onto another.

Crank Slider, 3 Planes

3 Planes

With this synthesis you can construct a crank-slider mechanism that moves one given plane first onto a second and then onto a third.

Crank Slider straight-line (exact)

Straight-line

(exact)

With this synthesis you can construct a crank-slider mechanism that moves in an exactly straight line between two given points.

Crank Slider straight-line (approximate)

Straight-line

(approximate)

With this synthesis you can construct a crank-slider mechanism that moves in an approximately straight line between two given points.

Force Synthesis

Force Synthesis

Force Synthesis

The force synthesis allows you to set certain holding force values at certain simulation times (or situations) and then keep them fixed.

Kinematic elements are the basic components that allow you to build a kinematic system. Their main function is to transmit movement, and for this they can be fitted with drives. They can also transmit forces, but they cannot be moved by forces.

Bar

Bar

A bar is a rigid kinematic element with two joints (binary link). Even though it is depicted by default as just a straight line, it can functionally represent any element of arbitrary shape that shares these basic properties.

Prismatic Pair

Prismatic Pair

A prismatic pair consists of two elements: the slider and the guide. The slider is equipped with a joint and can slide along the guide, which itself can be rotated around a joint at one of its ends.

Curved Guide

Curved Guide

Like the prismatic pair, the curved guide also consists of a slider and a guide. The guide can be curved here though, since it is represented by a spline. The joint of the guide is connected to the guide by a rigid extension, the length of which can be set to zero though, if necessary. The joint of the slider, on the other hand, is situated directly on the slider. The guide can also be laid out as closed loop and even cross itself.

Gear pair

Gear pair

Gear pairs transmit a rotary motion, while reversing its direction and often changing its speed. During creation you will first have to choose the position of the joints the gears should be mounted on, followed by the gears’ point of contact. Depending on these inputs, the transmission ratio is computed.

Belt Transmission

Belt Transmission

Like the gear pair, the belt transmission is used to transmit a rotary motion, in this case by using a belt, though. This means that after its creation you can decide if you want to change the direction of the motion by crossing the belt, if the belt should be closed and, if not, if it should be brought around the other side of each wheel.

Rack-and-Pinion

Rack-and-Pinion

The rack-and-pinion converts the rotary motion of a gear into a translatory motion of a rack. It consists of three parts: pinion (gear), housing, and rack. Additionally it has two joints: one for the pinion and one on the rack.

Floating Bearing

Floating Bearing

The floating bearing limits a joint’s movement to a straight line. It can move any distance in either direction, but it will not be able to deviate from the straight line. The direction of the straight line cannot change during a simulation.

Fixed Bearing

Fixed Bearing

With a fixed bearing you can fix a joint in place. Elements connected to it can still rotate around the joint, but the joint itself can no longer change position.

Fixed Angle

Fixed Angle

With the fixed angle, you can keep the angle between two elements connected by a joint constant. With this element you can also merge two separate binary links (with two joints each) to become one single trinary link (with three joints). This merging into a rigid body can be extended to an arbitrary number of elements.

With drives you can impose a motion onto a kinematic element. They can be used on a variety of couplers, but do not exert any force of their own, just the pure motion. To make a kinematic system capable of simulation, you need at least as many drives as the number of degrees of freedom in the whole system. If more drives than degrees of freedom are placed, no more than the number of the degrees of freedom may be active at the same time.

Absolute Rotary Drive

Absolute Rotary Drive

The absolute rotary drive imposes a rotational movement on the coupler it is placed on.

Relative Rotary Drive

Relative Rotary Drive

With the relative rotary drive you can make two elements that are connected by a joint rotate against each other.

Free Rotary Drive

Free Rotary Drive

A free rotary drive moves any two couplers in relation to each other. For the creation it is insignificant whether these couplers are somehow connected or even part of the same linkage.

Absolute Linear Drive

Absolute Linear Drive

The absolute linear drive causes a joint to move into the direction that is given by its arrow.

Relative Linear Drive

Relative Linear Drive

With the relative linear drive you can make a floating bearing move in its given direction or a slider along its guide.

To aid you in precisely positioning your elements, you can make certain points (and other elements) on the Canvas ‘catchable’. Point-like elements, when you create them or while you are moving them around, will snap to those points and take their coordinates, if you move your cursor close to them.

Grid

Grid

One possibility is to catch on the grid. This means snapping to the grid’s intersections.

Points

Points

Another option is to catch defining points (meaning end or corner points) of elements on the Canvas.

Intersections

Intersections

With this command you will be able to catch the exact intersection points of elements on the Canvas.

Centers

Centers

This command helps you catch the center points of elements on the Canvas. This includes centers of segments of elements (like the sides of a polygon) as well as the centers of circles, gears and wheels.

Boundaries

Boundaries

Alternatively, you can snap to arbitrary points on the contours of elements on the Canvas.

In ASOM v7 you can plot any values from the simulation against each other and let them be visualized in a graph. Any graph is part of a diagram window. In ASOM v7 you can use many predefined graph types to quickly visualize your data. These default graphs always plot a certain quantity over the simulation time.

Universal Graph

Universal Graph

This graph type differs from all other graphs by not pre-selecting any sources for the x- and y-axes. You can freely select the source for the values of each axis.

Displacement

Displacement

The current distance of a point in [mm] from its starting location, measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Velocity

Velocity

The velocity of a point in [mm/s], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Acceleration

Acceleration

The acceleration of a point in [mm/s²], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Rotation

Rotation

The rotation of an element in comparison to its start position in [°], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Angular Velocity

Angular Velocity

The angular velocity of an element in [°/s], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Angular Acceleration

Angular Acceleration

The angular acceleration of an element [°/s²], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Vector between two Points

Vector between two Points

The vector between two selected points in [mm], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Angle between two Vectors

Angle between two Vectors

The angle between two vectors (each defined by selecting two points) in [°], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Path Length

Path Length

The length of the path in [mm] a point covers in global coordinates during the simulation (moving along its trajectory).

Stroke

Stroke

The stroke of an energy storage (difference between the length of the energy storage in the unstressed and the current state) in [mm], measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Stroke Path Length

Stroke Path Length

The stroke path length represents the sum of the absolute changes in stroke of an energy storage element in [mm] over the whole duration of the simulation (comparable to Path Length).

Relative socket-orientation

Relative socket-orientation

The relative socket orientation can only be measured for energy storage elements that can be connected by way of ball joints. It corresponds to the directed angle beta in [°] that is formed by the two studs of the two ball joints of the chosen energy storage element, after they are projected onto a plane that is perpendicular to the axis of the energy storage element, which is then viewed from the direction of the gas spring rod.

Socket-angularity

Socket-angularity

The socket-angularity can only be measured for energy storage elements that can be connected by way of ball joints. It corresponds to the angle alpha in [°], that the direction vector of the chosen ball stud of the chosen energy storage element forms with a plane that is perpendicular to the axis of the energy storage element.

Force

Force

The force exerted by a force element (Force Vector, Gas Spring, …) in [N] over the whole duration of the simulation.

Torque

Torque

The torque exerted by a torque element (torque, torsion spring) in [Nmm] over the whole duration of the simulation.

Holding Force

Holding Force

The force measured by a manual force or holding force vector in [N] over the whole duration of the simulation.

Holding Torque

Holding Torque

The torque measured by a holding torque in [Nmm] over the whole duration of the simulation.

Joint Force

Joint Force

The force in [N] acting on a joint by way of a connected element, dependent on a given holding force, measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Joint Force Pair

Joint Force Pair

The combined force in [N] acting on a joint by way of two connected elements forming a rigid unit, dependent on a given holding force, measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Longitudinal Force

Longitudinal Force

The component of a joint force acting on a bar, which acts exactly in the direction of the bar, in [N], dependent on a given holding force, measured over the whole duration of the simulation.

Forces

ASOM v7 offers you a variety of options for representing real forces in your system.

Mass

Mass

By using a mass together with a kinematic element you can simulate the weight and inertia of a real body by placing it at the body’s center of mass.

Absolute Torque

Absolute Torque

The absolute torque serves to simulate a torque that supports or hinders the rotation of an element.

Relative Torque

Relative Torque

A rotational force that acts between two elements can be simulated with a relative torque. It is created by selecting two elements that are connected with a joint.

Force Vector

Force Vector

The force vector will simulate any linear force that acts upon a coupler from or into a certain direction or between two couplers.

Energy Storages

Energy storages are generally supplementary parts that (in the real world) support the movement of a system.

Gas Spring

Gas Spring

A gas spring is a pneumatic spring that builds up force by compressing gas within its cylindrical body. This makes the exerted force highly reliant on the properties of the used gas. This behaviour can be simulated in ASOM v7 by choosing one from several available ideal or real gas laws.

Pressure Spring

Pressure Spring

The pressure spring builds up force by being compressed and will thus exert a counter pressure.

Tension Spring

Tension Spring

The tension spring on the other hand gathers force by being pulled apart. Consequently, it will exert a counter pull.

Torsion Spring

Torsion Spring

The torsion spring operates by enacting force upon its flanks which is retained in the torsion of its coils. It can only be created by selecting two elements that are connected by a joint.

Spindle Drive

Spindle Drive

A spindle drive consists of a rod that is located within a cylinder and can be extended or retracted by the use of an internal motor. They often contain an additional spring to support the movement in one direction.

With holding forces you can measure the forces required to counterbalance all known (active) forces in your system.

Manual Force

Manual Force

The manual force measures the force a human would have to exert (manually) at a certain point to balance out all other forces in the system.

Holding Force Vector

Holding Force Vector

With the holding force vector you can measure a force that is enacted linearly.

Absolute Holding Torque

Absolute Holding Torque

The absolute holding torque serves to measure a torque that acts on a single element.

Relative Holding Torque

Relative Holding Torque

With the relative holding torque you can measure a force that acts between two elements that are connected by a joint.

Import

Besides the creation of internal graphical elements you can also load externally created images, DXF files, point positions or splines onto the Canvas. There they can, for the most part, be transformed and connected to kinematic systems like other graphical elements.

Import image

Import Image

This feature imports an image file into your ASOM v7 project. Image files can be imported if their format is PNG or JPG.

Import DXF

Import DXF

This feature imports a DXF file into your ASOM v7 project. The file will be imported as a 2D drawing, according to its native placement and scale. During the import, all numerical values in the file will be interpreted as having the unit [mm].

Import points

Import Points

If you have stored the positions of several points as pairs of x- and y-values in an Excel or text file, you can import these into ASOM v7, to create either a point cloud, or an open or closed polygon on the Canvas.

Import spline points

Import Spline Points

This feature allows you to import rails for curved guides (splines) from an external source (a text file or Excel file) which contains a description of the spline rail by way of a list of control points.

Export

You have several options to export data from ASOM v7. Only the point export is realized as menu feature, though. Additionally, you can export diagram data and expression results (as well as expression source code).

Export points

Export Points

With this feature you can export the coordinates of point-like elements from the Canvas at arbitrary instants or over the whole of the simulation into a text file, Excel file or DXF file.

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